First Aid


  1. Immediately put the burn or scald under running cold water to reduce the heat in the skin. Do this for at least 10 minutes. If running water is not possible, immerse the burn or scald in cold water.

  2. Cover the burn or scald with a clean, non-fluffy cloth like a linen tea towel. This cuts down the danger of infection.

  3. If clothes are stuck to the skin, don't try to take them off.

  4. Call an ambulance or take the patient to hospital. You should take a child to hospital for anything other than a very small burn or scald. Don't put butter, oil or ointment on a burn or scald. It only has to be cleaned off again before treatment can be given.


  1. Don't waste time trying to pick the object out with your fingers, it will probably I be too far back and too slippery.

  2. For babies and small children, quickly turn them upside down, holding them firmly by the legs. Slap the back firmly between the shoulder blades. If the object doesn't come out, do it again.

  3. If after several tries this hasn't worked, place 2 fingers on the lower half of the e breast bone and press down sharply 5 times. If the obstruction has still not cleared, repeat the process and call an ambulance.

  4. For bigger children, bend the child over the back of a settee or arm of a chair and give a good thump on the back, between the shoulder blades. If after several tries this hasn't worked, squeeze the stomach sharply by giving a quick, hard hug from behind. This can also be used for adults. Further information including courses and books are available from The British Red Cross. Contact your local office.


  1. Press firmly on the wound using a clean cloth or your fingers, until the bleeding stops. This may take 10 minutes or more.

  2. If possible, raise the injured limb. This helps to stop bleeding. But don't do this if you think the limb is broken. 

  3. Cover the wound with a clean dressing if you can find one. If you can't, don't cover the wound.

  4. Then call an ambulance or take the patient to hospital.

  5. Ask your doctor about a tetanus injection. Don't give the patient anything to drink after an accident if you think an anaesthetic may be needed later.

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